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Mummification Glossary

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canon - A group of laws and rules made by a church.

An ecclesiastical law or code of laws established by a church council; a collection of principles, rules, standards, or norms.

canon of proportions - These were rules that the writers in ancient Egypt used for writing and drawing. By following these rules, the writers could keep everything the same so that it looked good.

Egyptian scribes followed strict rules of hieratic drawing called the canon of proportions to enable consistency of design.

canopic - These are special jars. When a person is mummified, their insides are taken out and put in these jars.

Four lidded vessels which held the vital organs of the dead body as the corpse was being prepared for mummification. These four vessels of urns contained the liver, lungs, stomach and intestines extracted from the body during mummification. The term comes from the Greek, Canopus, a demigod venerated in the form of a human headed jar.

cartonnage - This is kind of like paper mache. It was linen soaked in plaster and used for making mummy masks and coffins.

Papyrus or linen soaked in plaster, shaped around a body. Used for mummy masks and coffins.

cartouche - This is kind of a stretched circle that had a personís name in hieroglyphs written inside of it. It made their name stand out from the rest of the hieroglyphs.

Elongated version of the hieroglyphic sign W shen which means 'to encircle'. Shaped like an oval loop, the cartouche was a way of separating hieroglyphics from the rest of the words that were written. Hieroglyphics are written inside the oval, which showed that these symbols stood for a person's name.

Czech Mummies - These are mummies in a museum in the Czech Republic which is a country in Europe. It is one of the biggest collection of Egyptian mummies outside of Egypt.

Located in the Naprstek Museum in the Czech Republic is one of the largest accumulations of Egyptian mummies outside of Egypt. Conserved mummies native to the Czech Republic, however, are not numerous and come principally from the Renaissance era.

copt, coptic - This is a name that was given to people who were born and grew up in Egypt when Rome and ancient Greece were around. They came after the ancient Egyptians.

Original native Egyptian of Greco-Roman period onwards eventually came to mean Christian Egyptians.